Scripts אִיּוֹב (Ancient Hebrew)
From the Hebrew name אִיּוֹב (‘Iyyov), meaning “titled,” or “persecuted,” “hated” . However, the origin of the name Job is not certain (unknown according to the “BDB Theological Dictionary”). Some (NOBSE Study Bible Name List reads Returning) have it derived from an Arabic noun meaning “one who turns (to GOD).” Others (HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament) see similarities to the verb איב (ayap), which means to be an enemy.
The name Job in the Bible
Job was a very believing man of Uz, and probably his very righteousness attracted the attention of Satan who targeted him to test whether his great faith wavered under misfortunes. All his sons and daughters died, he lost all his possessions and was also struck down by a very serious illness, but he never cursed GOD. After his ordeal Job had seven more sons (who remain unnamed), and his three daughters were even mentioned as follows: “In all the land there were not found such beautiful women as Job’s daughters” (Job 42:15). Their names were Jemimah, Keziah, and Keren-happuch (42:14).
Job is mentioned only once in the New Testament. The epistle James refers to Job (spelled Ιωβ, Iob) as an example of endurance (James 5:11).
Job for Christians
Christianity accepts the book of Job into the Old Testament canon, and his name is also mentioned in the New Testament, in the Epistle of James (James 5:11) which paraphrases Job as an example of patience in suffering.
Job’s statement, “I know that my redeemer lives” (Job 19:25) is the basis for several Christian hymns.
Job for Islam and the Qur’anic account
In the Qur’an, Job (Arabic: أيّوب, Romanized: Ayyūb) is considered a prophet. The narrative framework of the story of Job in Islam is similar to the story of the Bible but, in Islam, the emphasis is on Job remaining steadfast in his faith in GOD without showing any trace of his bitterness or defiance, or mentioning the long discussions with his friends.
The Qur’an mentions Job’s narrative concisely. Similar to the narrative in the Bible, Islamic tradition mentions that Satan heard the angels of GOD speak of Job as the most faithful man of his generation. Job, being a prophet chosen by GOD, would remain committed to daily prayer and would often call upon GOD, thanking Him for blessing him with abundant wealth and a large family. But Satan planned to turn the fearful Job away from GOD; he wanted him to fall into unbelief and corruption. Therefore, GOD allowed Satan to afflict Job with anguish and intense sickness and suffering, for he knew that Job would never turn away from his Lord.
The Qur’an describes Job as a righteous servant of ALLAH (GOD), who was afflicted with suffering for a long period of time. However, it clearly states that Job never lost faith and always invoked GOD in prayer, asking Him to remove his affliction:
“And Job, when he cried out to his Lord, (saying), Behold, adversity afflicts me, and You are the most merciful of all who show mercy.”
(Qur’an, Sura 21 “The Prophets”, ayah 83)
The narrative goes on to state that after many years of suffering, GOD commanded Job to “Strike with your foot!” Immediately Job struck the earth with his foot, and GOD caused a fresh spring of water to gush forth from the earth, from which Job could replenish himself. The Qur’an says that it was then that GOD removed his pain and suffering and restored his family, blessing him with many generations of descendants and granting him great wealth. In addition to the brief descriptions of Job’s story, the Qur’an mentions Job twice in the lists of those to whom GOD gave special guidance, wisdom and inspiration (IV: 163) and as one of the men who received authority, the Book and the gift of prophecy (VI: 84).