Hebrew Canon

Rabbinic Judaism (Hebrew: יהדות רבנית) recognizes the twenty-four Books of the Masoretic Text, commonly called the Tanakh (Hebrew: תַּנַ”ךְ) or Hebrew Bible. Evidence suggests that the process of canonization occurred between 200 BC and 200 AD, and a popular position is that the Torah was canonized c. 400 BC, the Prophets c. 200 BC, and the Writings c. 100 AD perhaps at a hypothetical Council of Jamnia—however, this position is increasingly criticised by modern scholars. According to Marc Zvi Brettler, the Jewish Scriptures outside the Torah and the Prophets were fluid, different groups seeing authority in different Books.

The Book of Deuteronomy includes a prohibition against adding or subtracting (4:2, 12:32) which might apply to the book itself (i.e. a “closed Book”, a prohibition against future scribal editing) or to the instruction received by Moses on Mt. Sinai. The Book of 2 Maccabees, itself not a part of the Jewish canon, describes Nehemiah (c. 400 BC) as having “founded a library and collected books about the kings and prophets, and the writings of David, and letters of kings about votive offerings” (2:13–15).

The Book of Nehemiah suggests that the priest-scribe Ezra brought the Torah back from Babylon to Jerusalem and the Second Temple (8–9) around the same time period. Both I and II Maccabees suggest that Judas Maccabeus (c. 167 BC) likewise collected sacred books (3:42–50, 2:13–15, 15:6–9), indeed some scholars argue that the Jewish canon was fixed by the Hasmonean dynasty. However, these primary sources do not suggest that the canon was at that time closed; moreover, it is not clear that these sacred books were identical to those that later became part of the canon.

The Hebrew Canon

1. בראשית (Bereshìt, in beginning) – Genesis
2. שמות (Shemòt, names) – Exodus
3. ויקרא (Wayqrà, and He called) – Leviticus
4. במדבר (Bemidbàr, in desert) – Numbers
5. דברים (Devarìm, words) – Deuteronomy
  • נביאים Nevi’im (Hebrew Prophets: Prophet (Judaism)):
  • נביאים ראשונים (Neviìm rishonimearlier Prophets) or Historical Books
6. יהושע (Yehoshua) – Joshua
7. שופטים (Shofetìm) – Judges
8. שמואל (Samuèl) – 1st and 2nd Samuel
9. ספר מלכים (sèfer malchìm – Book of Kings) – 1st and 2nd Kings
  • נביאים אחרונים (Neviìm aharonim, rear Prophets)
10.ישעיהו (Ysha’ihàu) – Isaiah
11. ירמיהו (Yermihàu) – Jeremiah
12. יחזקאל (Yehzqè’l) – Ezekiel
13. תרי עשר (Terè ‘asàr, twelve in Aramaic language), included the Books called 12 minor Prophets (or ‘twelve’ or ‘minor Prophets’):
  • הושע (Hoshè’a) – Hosea
  • יואל (Yoèl) – Joel
  • עמוס (Amòs) – Amos
  • עובדיה (Obadiàh) – Obadia
  • יונה (Yonàh) – Yonah
  • מיכה (Mikà) – Micah
  • נחום (Nahùm) – Nahum
  • חבקוק (Habaqqùq) – Habakkuk
  • צפניה (Zefanyàh) – Zephaniha
  • חגי (Haggài) – Chagai
  • זכריה (Zekaryàh) – Zechariah
  • מלאכי (Mal’aki) – Malachi
  • כתובים Ketuvim (Writings):
14. תהילים (Tehillìm) – Psalms
15. משלי (Mishlè) – Proverbs
16. איוב (Iòb) – Job
  • חמש המגילות (Hamesh meghillot, five scrolls) included
17. שיר השירים (Shìr hasshirìm) – Song of Songs
18. רות (rut) – Ruth
19. איכה (Ekàh, ahimè) – Lamentations
20. קהלת (Qohèlet, radunante) – Qoelet or Ecclesiastes
21. אסתר (Estèr) – Esther
22. דניאל (Dani’èl) – Daniel
23. עזרא (Ezrà) – Ezra included
נחמיה (Nehemyàh) – Nehemia
24. דברי הימים (Debarè hayomim – Chronicles) – 1st and 2ns Book of Chronicles

 


ASH suggests always seeking its own personal interpretation of Sacred Texts. Unintentional 
translation errors, and conscious tampering of the Writings, have been used too often to 
modify the Texts and control the thought of the masses. There are many reliable links on 
the web where you can find interlinear translations of the Texts in the original language. 
However, the web have to be used sparingly and only in support of the studies, but we still thank 
everyone who makes available their knowledge to the community.

LINKS:
Bible Hebrew Interlinear (OT)

Bible Hebrew-English

Bible Septuaginta LXX Old Greek-English

Bible Vulgate Latin-English

Holy Quran Arab-English

Holy Quran Trasliterated-Arab-English