The Prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a Divine Being and said to speak on that Entity’s behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
The Message that the Prophet conveys is called a prophecy, which transports—at least in Abrahamic Faiths—a Message beyond soothsaying, augury, divination, or forecasting, and, most prominently in the nevi’im of the TaNaKh, often comprises issues of social justice.
Prophets and prophecy are integral to Judaism and all Abrahamic Faiths. Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the forefathers of the people of GOD, were Prophets. Moses—to whom the Law descended—was considered the greatest Prophet who ever lived in his times. In later generations, Prophets and Prophetesses guided the people, chided them when they did wrong and comforted them when things were tough. The Jewish tradition through the Book of Talmud tells us that there were 48 Prophets and seven prophetesses of the Jewish people. Now, the Talmud qualifies that there were many more prophets—a whopping 1,200,000 prophets in fact—but only those Prophets whose Message was relevant for future generations made the list.
Claims of prophethood have existed in many cultures through history, no only in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, but also in Ancient Greek philosophy, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and many others. Prophets are traditionally regarded as having a role in society that promotes change due to their Messages and actions which often convey GOD’s displeasure concerning the behavior of the people and the eventual demise of their societal, cultural system as a whole.
This is ASH’s (Abrahamic Study Hall) selection of 20 of the greatest Prophets of all times, not in chronological order and not even for relevance.
Between different Religions it can be sharing many pillars of the Faith believes; with love and tollerance anyone will find out more attrubiutes in common with your foregin neighbour than with some lost brother or sister.
Quran 41, 34 Good and evil deeds are not equal. Repel evil with what is better [good]; Then you will see that one who was once your enemy has become you dearest friend.
And the LORD spoke to Abraham: ‘Go for yourself from your land, from your birthplace and from the house of your father, to the land that I will show you.
(Book of Genesis Capitolo 12 Versetto 1)
With this simple instruction, we are introduced to Abraham and his seed, who take the central role in the Bible. The Bible is full of Divine communication with Abraham. When GOD told him that He was planning to destroy the evil cities of Sodom and Gomorra, Abraham pleaded with GOD, attempting to bargain with Divine Justice. When Abraham was worried over his future, GOD promised him a son. However, the crowning achievement of the Abraham-GOD relationship came when GOD tested Abraham by telling him sacrifice his beloved son, Isaac, and Abraham was ready to follow unquestioningly.
Yet, as great as Abraham was, the sages say that his wife was an even greater prophetess.
As the wife of Abraham, Sarah was an equal partner in his efforts to spread monotheistic beliefs and morality. Abraham led the men, and Sarah shepherded the women. She was originally named Yiscah, but Abraham called her Sarai (“my princess/superior”) because she was superior to him in her prophetic abilities. When she was 89 years old, GOD commanded that her name be changed to Sarah (which means “princess”) and Abram (“exalted father”) become Abraham (“father of many nations”), and they were soon blessed with a son, Isaac.
Sarah was so Holy that her bread would remain fresh all week, her Shabbat candles would burn until the following Friday, and a cloud would hover above her tent. In telling Sarah’s age at the time of her passing, the verse states that her life was “100 years, and 20 years, and 7 years.” The sages explain that when she was 100, she was as pure of sin as a maiden of 20; and when she was 20, she was as beautiful as an innocent 7-year-old.
Abraham and Sarah’s descendants made their way down to Egypt, where they were enslaved by Pharaoh. In those bitter times, a little girl named Miriam (which means “bitter”) was born to Amram and Yocheved. Her father was the leader of the generation and her mother was a busy midwife. Determined not to have more children for Pharaoh to slay, Miriam’s parents separated. Miriam divined that they were destined to give birth to the child who would lead the people out of slavery, and she convinced them to remarry. From that union came Moses, the redeemer of Israel.
Miriam continued to believe in a better future, even when her father doubted her prophecy. When the Israelites left Egypt and crossed the Red Sea, leaving the Egyptians behind, Miriam led the women in song and dance. And due to Miriam’s merit, GOD provided the people with a traveling well for most of the 40 years that they were in the desert.
Maimonides called him the “Father of all Prophets,” asserting that Moses alone was “chosen by GOD from all mankind.” GOD spoke to Moses from within a burning bush and told him to go to Egypt to redeem the people from Egypt. Ten plagues and one dramatic sea crossing later, Moses went up to Mount Sinai, where GOD communicated the 10 Commandments. Moses spent 40 days atop the mountain, during which GOD dictated and Moses recorded the Torah, the foundational book of Judaism, also known as the Five Books of Moses.
While other prophets only heard from GOD intermittently, often in a dreamlike state, Moses would speak to GOD at any time in a most personal manner. In the words of the Torah:
“And there was no other Prophet who arose in Israel like Moses, whom the LORD knew Face to face.”
It’s true that no Prophet arose in Israel like Moses. However, the sages tell us there was one such prophet among the gentiles. Thus, even though he technically does not belong on a list of Jewish prophets, we will still share a bit about Balaam.
Balaam was hired by King Balak to curse the Israelites on their way out of Egypt. Balaam ignored GOD’s warnings, the presence of an Angel blocking his way, and even the miracle of a talking donkey as he eagerly hastened to help Balak with his diabolical scheme. But instead of curses, all Balaam was able to say were blessings for the people of Israel, including beautiful prophecies about the Era of Moshiach. It is from Balaam’s prophecies that we have the famous verse
“How goodly are your tents, O Jacob, your dwelling places, O Israel!”
which many Jews say every morning at the start of their daily prayers.
Joshua was Moses’ devoted student, who “never left the tent [of Moses].” When Moses chose 12 spies to scout out the Promised Land, Joshua was one of two scouts who remained faithful to the mission. And when Moses was nearing the end of his 120 years on earth, GOD told him to select Joshua as a successor. Joshua faithfully led the people into the Land. Through him, GOD orchestrated the miracle of the crumbling walls of Jericho and the vanquishing of the heathen tribes who occupied Canaan at the time. Joshua exhorted the people to remain faithful to the Torah and to GOD, and his leadership is recorded in the Book of Joshua.
Deborah the Prophetess ruled Israel from under a date tree (tomer Devorah) in the land of Ephraim. One reason for this open-air office was that she was wary of being alone with men who came to seek her counsel, and therefore chose to meet them in plain sight. Scripture describes her as “a woman of flames (lapidot).” The sages understood this to mean that she had the honor of making wicks for the Temple menorah.
She conveyed GOD’s Message to General Barak that he should go to war against the Canaanites, who had been oppressing the people of Israel. Barak agreed to go to war only if Deborah would go with him. She obliged, the Israelites won (with the help of Yael, another brave woman), and Deborah sang a song to thank GOD for His deliverance. The land was then tranquil for 40 years.
8. Chanah (Hannah)
Chanah was married to a Prophet named Elkanah. Chanah had no offspring, but her husband’s other wife, Peninah, was blessed with many children. One holiday, she was so saddened that she went to the Tabernacle and wept, silently praying. She promised GOD that if she would be blessed with a son, she would give him to GOD all the days of his life. Her prayer was unusual in that it was silent, and Eli, the High Priest at the time, thought she was drunk. When Chanah explained what she was doing, he was impressed and agreed that she was correct. In fact, many laws of Jewish prayer are derived from Chanah’s prayer.
Hannah (Hebrew: חַנָּה Ḥannāh) was the mother of Samuel, and one of the wives of Elkanah mentioned in the First Book of Samuel.
Samuel was the miracle baby who was born to Chanah and Elkanah. When he was weaned, his mother brought him to the Tabernacle to be raised in holiness by Eli the High Priest, as per her promise to GOD (“NZR“”nazireo”=”consacrato”). One night, GOD called to Samuel, and thus began a lifetime of devotion. Samuel would regularly travel throughout the Land of Israel to judge the people and guide them.
When the people, suffering at the hands of Philistine enemies, requested a king to lead them, Samuel heeded their wish and anointed Saul. After Saul failed to remain faithful to GOD, Samuel anointed David to succeed him. Even after he appointed the kings, Samuel continued to judge, guide and teach the people. He wrote several Books of the Bible, including the book that bears his name. He lived a rich and busy life until he passed away at the age of 52.
The sages say that Samuel was equal in stature to Moses, but there was a difference. While Moses needed to go to the Tent of Meeting to hear GOD’s Voice, GOD came to Samuel wherever he was. This reflected their leadership styles. Moses would remain in his place, and the people would come seek is counsel. Samuel, on the other hand, would travel to the people, meeting them wherever they were.
King David began his career as a humble shepherd boy, scorned and rejected by his brothers and sisters. Even when Samuel anointed him and he displayed his bravery by slaying the giant Goliath, he still faced rejection from many—including Saul.
After he was accepted as king, he still faced challenges from many, including his own children. He had problems among his wives and other tragedies in his family. Yet, David remained faithful to GOD, sometimes to the degree that others saw as him as childish. Known as the “Sweet Singer of Israel,” David composed many praises to GOD, including the Book of Psalms.
Page 1 of 2