Shemà

Shema Yisrael (or Sh’ma Yisrael; Hebrew: שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל‎; “Hear, [Oh] Israel”) are the first two words of a section of the Torah, and is the title (sometimes shortened to simply Shema) of a prayer that serves as a centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services. The first verse encapsulates the monotheistic essence of Judaism: “Hear, O Israel: the LORD our GOD, the LORD is One” (Hebrew: שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָֽד׃‎), found in Deuteronomy 6:4, sometimes alternatively translated as “The LORD is our GOD, the LORD is One.” Observant Jews consider the Shema to be the most important part of the prayer service in Judaism, and its twice-daily recitation as a mitzvah (religious commandment). It is traditional for Jews to say the Shema as their last words, and for parents to teach their children to say it before they go to sleep at night.

The term “Shema” is used by extension to refer to the whole part of the daily prayers that commences with Shema Yisrael and comprises Deuteronomy 6:4–9, 11:13-21, and Numbers 15:37–41. These sections of the Torah are read in the weekly Torah portions Va’etchanan, Eikev, and Shlach, respectively.

 

Prayer:

“Hear, O Israel, the LORD is our GOD, the LORD is One.”

(Recite the following verse in an undertone:)

“Blessed be the Name of His glorious Kingdom forever and ever.”

“You shall love the LORD your GOD with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your might.”

(Longer version continue with:)

“And these words which I command you today shall be upon your heart.
You shall teach them thoroughly to your children, and you shall speak of them when you sit in your house and when you walk on the road, when you lie down and when you rise.
You shall bind them as a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for a reminder between your eyes. And you shall write them upon the doorposts of your house and upon your gates.
And it will be, if you will diligently obey My commandments which I enjoin upon you this day, to love the LORD your GOD and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul, I will give rain for your land at the proper time, the early rain and the late rain, and you will gather in your grain, your wine and your oil.
And I will give grass in your fields for your cattle, and you will eat and be sated. Take care lest your heart be lured away, and you turn astray and worship alien gods and bow down to them.
For then the LORD’s wrath will flare up against you, and He will close the heavens so that there will be no rain and the earth will not yield its produce, and you will swiftly perish from the good land which the LORD gives you.
Therefore, place these words of Mine upon your heart and upon your soul, and bind them for a sign on your hand, and they shall be for a reminder between your eyes.
You shall teach them to your children, to speak of them when you sit in your house and when you walk on the road, when you lie down and when you rise. And you shall inscribe them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates – so that your days and the days of your children may be prolonged on the land which the LORD swore to your fathers to give to them for as long as the heavens are above the earth.
The LORD spoke to Moses, saying: Speak to the children of Israel and tell them to make for themselves fringes on the corners of their garments throughout their generations, and to attach a thread of blue on the fringe of each corner.
They shall be to you as tzizit, and you shall look upon them and remember all the commandments of the LORD and fulfill them, and you will not follow after your heart and after your eyes by which you go astray – so that you may remember and fulfill all My commandments and be holy to your GOD.
I am the LORD your GOD who brought you out of the land of Egypt to be your GOD; I, the LORD, am your GOD. Amen.

(Shemà)

 

 

In Christianity

The Shema is one of the Old Testament sentences quoted in the New Testament. The Gospel of Mark 12:29-31 mentions that Jesus the Nazarene considered the opening exhortation of the Shema to be the first of his two greatest Commandments and linked with a second (based on Leviticus 19:18b): “The first of all the Commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The LORD is our GOD, the LORD is One: And thou shalt love the LORD thy GOD with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first Commandment. And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.” In Luke 10:25-27 the Shema is also linked with Leviticus 19:18, only by the questioner, before Jesus’ agreement. The verses Deuteronomy 6:5 and Leviticus 19:18b both begin with ve’ahavta, “and you shall love.” In Luke’s Gospel it appears that this connection between the two verses was already part of cultural discussion or practice.

Theologians Carl Friedrich Keil and Franz Delitzsch noted that “the heart is mentioned first (in Deuteronomy 6:5), as the seat of the emotions generally and of love in particular; then follows the soul (nephesh) as the centre of personality in man, to depict the love as pervading the entire self-consciousness; and to this is added, “with all the strength,” i.e. of body and soul”.

The Shema has also been incorporated in Christian liturgy, and is discussed in terms of the Trinity. The Anglican Book of Common Prayer in use in Canada since 1962, has included the Shema in its Summary of the Law. Since 2012, when the Anglican Use version of the BCP was adapted for use in Canada, it has been recited by Roman Catholics as well.

The Orthodox Church of the Culdees utilize the Shema in the Daily Services.

In Islam

The words used in the Shema prayer are similar to the words of Sura 112 (Al-Tawhid or Monotheism) in Quran. The words “أَحَدٌ” in Arabic is identical to the word “אֶחָד” in Hebrew.

Arabic: قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ‎‎Qul Huwa ‘Llāhu ʾAḥad (“Say, He is ALLAH [GOD] the One”)

Hebrew: :שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יהוה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יהוה אֶחָד‎ – Sh’ma Yisra’el YHWH ELOHEINU YHWH Eḥad

 


 

10 interesting facts that everyone should know about the Shema Prayer

1. The Shema Consists of Three Paragraphs

The Shema prayer consists of three biblical paragraphs: Deuteronomy 6:4–9, 11:13–21, and Numbers 15:37–41. The first two sections (Deuteronomy 6:4–9 and 11:13–21) declare the oneness of G‑d and our duty as Jews to love Him, to study the Torah and teach it to our children, to follow his mitzvot, including binding tefillin on our arms and heads and affixing mezuzot to the doorposts of our homes. The third section (Numbers 15:37–41) speaks of the mitzvah of tzitzit and of the Exodus from Egypt.

2. Jewish tradition say Shema twice daily

In the first paragraph of the longer version of the Prayer, the fourth verse tells us: “And you shall teach them to your children… when you lie down and when you rise up.” From this verse, we learn to recite the Shema twice daily, in the morning and in the evening. In order to fulfill one’s obligation of saying Shema, ideally one should say all three paragraphs. In a pinch, there are varying views among the rabbis as to what one can do to fulfill the minimal obligation; but certainly, one should at least recite the first paragraph.

3. Cover or make sure your eyes are closed for the First Verse

While reciting the first verse, the Jewish tradition teaches to cover our eyes with our right hand. The basic reason is for respect and to eliminate distractions during this essential prayer. There is yet a deeper reason: during the Shema prayer we declare that everything is GOD, so that when we uncover our eyes we discover a new reality. A reality that centers on Godliness. The physical world that we see is not all that exists; there is a greater reality above the mundane.

4. The Shema is one of the first things a newborn Jew learn

In the Laws of Torah study, in the Code of Jewish Law, we are told that when a child starts to talk we should teach them two verses: “The Torah that Moses commanded us is a heritage for the congregation of Jacob” (Deuteronomy 33:4). And the second is: “Hear, Oh Israel: The LORD is our GOD; the LORD is One”(Deuteronomy 6:4, the first verse of Shema). These two verses are the fundamentals of our faith.

5. The second line of Shema

The second sentence of this prayer, which is said quietly, reads: “Blessed be the Name of His glorious Kingdom forever and ever.” This verse does not appear anywhere in the Bible, and there are differing views as to its origin. One source is a discussion and story in the Talmud, tractate Pesachim , where this very question is asked: Jacob is on his deathbed, questioning his sons’ allegiance to the one GOD. His sons respond with the first verse of the shema which led Jacob to exclaim: “Blessed be the Name of His glorious Kingdom forever and ever.” The Talmud concludes, since it is not a Biblical verse it is said quietly.

6. A deeper meaning, more than Monotheism

The idea that “GOD is One” means not only that there is one GOD, but that GOD and the whole of creation are actually one. There is nothing apart from GOD. Nothing exists outside of Him; everything that we perceive, every particle of existence, is nothing but a veiled manifestation of GOD. For this reason, everything in the Universe is totally dependent on GOD at every moment. GOD created the Universe a long time ago, but He also perpetually recreates its existence. The Sages speak of a stream of energy emanating from the infinite essence of GOD, recreating the universe at every moment. Were He to remove this life-giving force, the Universe and all therein would cease to exist.

7. The Shema expresses two levels of unity

Rabbi Schneur Zalman was a Chassidic luminary and the first Rebbe of Chabad, whose seminal work is titled, Tanya. In the second section of Tanya, The Gate of Unity and Faith, he explains how the first two sentences of Shema refer to two levels of divine unity. The first verse describes how GOD relates to the world from GOD’s perspective, how in truth everything is GOD. The second sentence employs the word ‘kinship,’ referring to the lower level of unity, the perspective of His creations. For there cannot be a king without a nation. From our perspective, we are dependent on GOD to sustain our existence.

8. The Shema is about Love

In the first paragraph of the Shema we are commanded to “Love GOD with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your might.” This means that we must harness our human desires, (i.e., animalistic passions) to serve Him—developing a love for GOD to the point that we are excited to fulfill His wishes. We must dedicate our very life-force, our soul to Him. We must be prepared to sanctify His Name, as many Jews have done so to the extent of putting their lives on the line. And lastly we must use our entire strength to serve GOD, with at least the same energy we generally use to make a living.

9. Crying out Shema is the climax of Yom Kippur

At the height of the holiest day of the year is the Neilah prayer, the fifth prayer recited as the day slips away. The climax of this prayer happens just before the shofar blast, and includes three verses. The first, said once, is the opening verse of Shema: “Hear Oh Israel, the LORD our GOD, the LORD is One.” The next, said three times, is the second sentence of the Shema: “Blessed be the Name of His glorious Kingdom forever and ever.” And the third verse, said seven times, is: “GOD – He is the Only GOD.” At this moment we are taught that we must be willing to give up our very lives for the sake of heaven.

10. Belivers say Shema at bedtime

Before settling down for the night, many have the custom (that derives from the Talmud) to recite an order of prayers that includes the Shema (this is in addition to the evening service which also includes the Shema). Many reasons are given for this custom. The end of the day is an ideal time for introspection, a chance to look back at our day and see what can be improved, so these prayers can help us grow in the right direction. The Talmud also tells us that it is proper to go to sleep with words of Torah on one’s lips; therefore, we recite the Shema again.

 

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